[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 5, Issue 5 (November-December 2017) ::
IJPN 2017, 5(5): 34-42 Back to browse issues page
Examining the Effect of Metacognitive Group Therapy on Anxiety among Caregivers of Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia
Kobra Shaheri , Mohammad Moradi Baglooei , Mohammad Ebrahim Sarichloo , Mahmood Alipour
Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran , baglooei@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1022 Views)
Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe and disabling disorder which, along with its negative effects on a patients, has numerous negative impacts on primary caregivers of these patients and can cause anxiety in them. Metacognitive therapy as one of the most effective therapies is used for treating a wide range of anxiety disorders. This study aimed to examine the effect of group metacognitive therapy on level of anxiety in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
Methods: This clinical trial was followed by a pretest-posttest design with a control group. Among all caregivers of patients with schizophrenia hospitalized at 22nd Bahman Hospital in Qazvin, 60 individuals were selected using a simple random sampling method. Finally, considering the inclusion criteria, 45 individuals were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental (23 individuals) and control (22 individuals) groups. Since three people from the experimental group abandoned the study, the number of participants placed in each group decreased to 20 people. With six-day intervals, the experimental group took part in ten 90-minute group metacognitive therapy sessions developed by Wells. However, during this time, no therapeutic interventions were conducted on the control group. Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used as an assessment tool in the pretest, posttest, and the two-month follow-up. Data were analyzed via SPSS 23 using descriptive statistics and mixed between-within subjects ANOVA (repeated measures analysis of variance).
Results: Results of the present study demonstrated that after conducting the metacognitive therapeutic intervention, a mean score of state-trait anxiety obtained by the experimental group significantly decreased compared to that of the control group (P < 0.01). These results indicated that metacognitive group therapy was effective on decreasing anxiety and in posttest and follow-up, compared to pretest, anxiety among the experimental group significantly decreased. In addition, no significant differences were found between a mean anxiety score obtained by the experimental group in the follow-up compared to that obtained in the posttest (P > 0.05), which showed the continuation of therapy effectiveness until the follow-up.
Conclusions: The caregivers of schizophrenic patients who underwent the metacognitive therapy obtained lower anxiety scores compared to the control group. Therefore, the results suggests that this therapy may lead to a decrease in anxiety among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: Anxiety, Metacognitive Therapy, Schizophrenia, Caregivers
Full-Text [PDF 15 kb]   (290 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/07/25 | Accepted: 2017/12/24 | Published: 2017/12/24
1. Altamura C, Fagiolini A, Galderisi S, Rocca P, Rossi A. Schizophrenia today: epidemiology, diagnosis, course and models of care. Journal of Psychopathology 2014; 20: 223-243.
2. Nouri Deloei MR, Alizadeh F. Genetic varieties of susceptible genes of schizophrenia and their roles in the disease progression. Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2014; 24(2): 61-68.
3. Lehman AF, Lieberman JA, Dixon LB, McGlashan TH, Miller AL, Perkins DO, et al. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, second edition. Am J Psychiatry, 2004; 161(2):1-56.
4. Shamsai F, Mohammadkhan Kermanshahi S, Vanaki Z. Meaning of health from the viewpoint of family members who take care of patients with bipolar disorder: A qualitative study. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2012; 22(90): 52-65.
5. Nadem Boeini M, Ramezani T, Khodadadi N, Mousavi Lotfi SM, Haghdoost AA, Yeganeh MR. Attitudes of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia towards taking care of their patients at home. Journal of Holistic Nursing and Midwifery. 2013; 23(69): 54-62.
6. Chime N, Malakoti SK, Pennaghi L, Ahmadabadi Z, Nojomi M, Ahmadi Tonekaboni A. Factors affecting burnout and mental health among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Family Research. 2008; 4(15): 277-292.
7. Kristjanson LJ, SounD. Palliative Care for Families: Remembering the Hidden Patients. Can J Psychiatry 2004; 49(6): 359-365. [DOI:10.1177/070674370404900604] [PMID]
8. Steele A, Maruyama N, Galynker I. Psychiatric symptoms in caregivers of patients with bipolardisorder. J Affect Disorder 2010; 121(1):10-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2009.04.020] [PMID]
9. Hauser JM, Kramer BJ. Family caregivers in palliative care. Clinical Geriatr Med 2004; 4: 671–688. [DOI:10.1016/j.cger.2004.07.003] [PMID]
10. Hudson P, Thomas K, Trauer T, Remedios C, Clarke D. Psychological and social profile of family caregivers on commencement of palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manage 2011; 41(3): 522–534. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.05.006] [PMID]
11. Radmanesh M. Examining and comparing the burden imposed on families of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the psychiatric center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Ph.D. Thesis in Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 2014.
12. Ganesh Kumar J, Athilakshmi R, Maharishi R, Maya R. Relationship between Fear of Negative Evaluation and Anxiety. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2015; 3(1 Supple 6): 74-80.
13. Saduk BJ, Saduk VA. Summary of psychiatry. Translated by: Farzin Rezaee. Tehran: Arjmand Publication; 2010.
14. Mojarad Kahani AH, Ghanbari Hashemabadi BA, Modarres Gharavi M. The effectiveness of mental group training interventions in improving quality of life and quality of relations in families of patients with bipolar disorder. Research on Behavioral Sciences. 2012; 10(2): 114-123.
15. Fisher PL, McNicol K, Young B, Smith E, Salmon P. Alleviating Emotional Distress in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: An Open Trial of Metacognitive Therapy. Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology 2015; 4(2): 64-69. [DOI:10.1089/jayao.2014.0046] [PMID]
16. Flavell JH. Metacognition and meta-cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive development inquiry. American Psychologist, 1979; 34: 906–911. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906]
17. Hjemdal, Hagen R, Nordahl. Metacognitive Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Nature, Evidence and an Individual Case Illustration. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice2013; 20: 301-313. [DOI:10.1016/j.cbpra.2013.01.002]
18. Sadeghi R, Mokhber N, Asgharipoor N. A systematic review and meta-analysis on therapeutic characteristics of metacognitive therapies in anxiety disorders. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2015; 2(9): 901-909.
19. Pournamdarian S, Beerashk B, Asgharnejad Farid AA. Explaining the contribution of meta-cognitive beliefs to predict symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in nurses. Journal of Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology. 2012; 13(3): 86-94.
20. Wells A. Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. Chi Chester 1997, UK: Wiley.
21. Simons M. Thinking Differently Metacognitive Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Treatment Plan. Verhaltenstherapie 2012; 22: 259–267. [DOI:10.1159/000345228]
22. Wenn J, O\'Connor M, Breen LJ, Kane RT, Rees C.S. Efficacy of metacognitive therapy for prolonged grief disorder: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open2014; 5: 1-11. Doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007221 [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007221]
23. Lashni A, Bahrami F, Eidi Baigi M, Turk M. Examining and comparing metacognitive therapy and family therapeutic therapy on social functioning of bipolar patients. Journal of Research in Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 13 (2): 208-214.
24. Pichler M. The effectiveness of metacognitive therapy (MCT) on the clinical signs of women with breast cancer in Medan city. buletin teknologi tanaman 2012; 9: 26-32.
25. Normann N, van Emmerik AAP, Morina N. The efficacy of metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Depress and Anxiety 2014; 31: 402-411. [DOI:10.1002/da.22273] [PMID]
26. Hashemi Z, Mahmood Allilu M, Hashemi Nosratabad T. The effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in major depressive disorder: A case report. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2010; 2(3): 85-97.
27. Yılmaz AE, Genco At, T, Wells A. The temporal precedence of metacognition in the development of anxiety and depression symptoms in the context of life-stress: A prospective study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2011; 25: 389-396. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.11.001] [PMID]
28. Connelly k. The role of metacognition within social anxiety disorder (SAD). The UCL an Journal of Undergraduate Research 2014; 7(2): 40-53.
29. Wells A, King P. Meta-cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: an open trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2006; 37(3): 206-612. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2005.07.002] [PMID]
30. Ghahchi Hosseini F, Fathi Ashtiani A, Satkin M. Comparison of the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy with cognitive therapy in reducing anxiety and anger symptoms in a sample of students. Journal of Practice in Clinical Psychology. 2015; 3(3): 213-219.
31. Vakili Y, Fati L, Habibi M. The effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: A case study conducted on three patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2013; 5 (4): 99-108.
32. Monazamitabar F, Baqerian Saravardi R, Ahmadi Tahor Soltani M, Rabiei M. Comparison of the effectiveness of metacognitive and cognitive-behavioral interventions in reducing symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and metacognitive beliefs. Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 31(233): 457-485.
33. Shahamat Dehsorkh F, Salehi Fadardi J. Attention bias in state and trait anxiety: Point tracking paradigm. Modern Psychological Research. 2013; 8(29): 183-196.
34. Labafinejad Y, Saghzadeh A. Studying the prevalence of anxiety and factors affecting it among female students of general medicine studying at Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Iran Occupational Health. 2012; 9(3): 32-38.
35. Hosseini Ghaffari F. The effectiveness of meta-cognitive group therapy in treating women with generalized anxiety disorder. Ph.D. Thesis in Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2013.
36. Ashoori J, Khaleghi Dehnavi F, Safarian MR. The effect of metacognitive therapy on marital satisfaction among women. Journal of Women and Family Studies. 2014; 6(24): 53-65.
37. Souri A, Azadmard Sh, Zahedi O, Ashoori J. The effect of metacognitive therapy and training spiritual intelligence components on students\' generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Health Education and Promotion of Health. 2015; 3(4): 351-359.
38. Bahadori MH, Jahanbakhsh M, Jamshidi A, Asgar K. The effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in anxiety symptoms among patients with social phobia disorder. Journal of Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology. 2011; 12(4): 12-19.
39. Shafiee Sangatash S, Rafieinia P, Najafi M. The effect of metacognitive therapy on anxiety and metacognitive components among patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2012; 4 (4): 19-30.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shaheri K, Moradi Baglooei M, Sarichloo M E, Alipour M. Examining the Effect of Metacognitive Group Therapy on Anxiety among Caregivers of Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia. IJPN. 2017; 5 (5) :34-42
URL: http://ijpn.ir/article-1-992-en.html

Volume 5, Issue 5 (November-December 2017) Back to browse issues page
نشریه روان پرستاری Iranian Journal of  Psychiatric Nursing
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3768